CBD is cannabidiol obtained from the hemp plant, which belongs to the cannabis family. It is a non-intoxicating product that has been introduced to the markets to treat several ailments and improve overall health. It has been just two years after its legalization in the US and within the short period, it has attracted the attention of scientists and commoners equally.
Hemp CBD produces the desired effect by working along several molecular pathways and about 65 molecular targets of CBD are identified. CBD has very little affinity to bind to the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CBD2. Instead, it can modulate several ion channels and non-cannabinoid receptors.
Below given are the several ways in which CBD activates various receptors in the body
Studies have been able to prove that at high concentrations CBD can activate the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A (hydroxytryptamine) which helps in relieving the symptoms of anxiety. The 5-HT1A receptor is associated with various neurological processes that influence addiction, sleep, appetite, etc.
The unheated version of CBD is called CBDA (cannabidiolic acid) and it too has a strong affinity for the receptor.
The TRPV1(Transient Receptor Potential cation Channel Subfamily V) receptors in the body function as ion channels also and they mediate inflammation, perception of pain, and body temperature. CBD binds to the TRPV1 and influences the pain perception process.
GPR55 (G protein-coupled receptor 55) receptors are not yet included in any big family of receptors and hence they are called orphan receptors. Studies suggest that CBD can deactivate the GPR55 receptor the activation of which promotes the growth of cancer cells. Since CBD blocks GPR55 signaling, it can be effective in cancer therapy.
CBD can activate the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors(PPAR) which are located on the cell nuclear surface and its activation can produce desired anti-cancer effects.
CBD Working As a Reuptake Inhibitor
CBD can inhibit adenosine reuptake and the anti-anxiety and anti-inflammatory effects of CBD are attributed to this inhibitory capacity. When the adenosine reuptake is delayed, adenosine levels in the brain increase and the activity of adenosine receptors in the brain is regulated.
Allosteric Modulation Function of CBD
CBD can change the shape of a receptor and influence the way a signal is transmitted by a receptor, by generating an activating or inhibitory effect. Studies suggest that the interaction of CBD with the GABA-A receptor can help in changing the shape of the receptor and this can, in turn, relieve the symptoms of anxiety.
The applications of CBD in pain relief medications and treating several ailments have increased the market value of the product. More and more people are starting to use CBD to treat several health problems and avail themselves of overall health benefits.