Cannabidiol, also known as CBD is obtained from both hemp and marijuana plants. It is one of the many phytocannabinoids found in them along with the infamous tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Since the legalisation of hemp cultivation for therapeutic and medical uses, there has been an increasing demand for cannabidiol products. This is because of the widespread adoption among common people, changing opinions for the good, celebrity endorsements and word of mouth spread about its benefits. Many people are still hesitant about using it as they do not know how it works. This primer will help you to understand how CBD medical benefits are imparted in humans. So, read on to know more.
How CBD Improves Overall Health?
From a general perspective, cannabidiol CBD offers its benefits by acting on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) of the body. By this, it improves the immune system performance, cardiovascular function, emotional well being, neurological function and bone health. The skin being the largest organ in the body has many of the ECS receptors, and using it improves skin health and appearance.
How CBD Activates Serotonin Receptors?
Research has shown that 5-HT1A receptors are directly activated by CBD at high concentrations, and these receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. This receptor is responsible for a wide range of biological and neurological processes such as sleep, anxiety, pain perception, vomiting, nausea, addiction and appetite. They are also found in the central as well as peripheral nervous systems. So, these are the reasons for CBD’s anti-anxiety effect, preventing relapses, useful as an antiemetic drug without side effects and promoting good appetite. Besides, the unheated and raw version of CBD, CBDA or cannabidiolic acid has a higher affinity to 5-H1TA serotonin receptors giving enhanced anti-nausea properties.
How CBD Effects Pain Receptors?
CBD achieves its effects by modulating various ion channels and non-cannabinoid receptors. One of the receptors is the TRPV1 receptor and cannabidiol directly interacts by binding with it. This particular receptor modulates pain perception, body temperature and inflammation. The pain relieving or reducing quality of CBD is due to these reasons. Moreover, TRPV1 receptors are also known as Vanilloid receptors and they are also activated by capsaicin found in chilli peppers.
What Is The Effect Of CBD As A GPR55 Antagonist?
While CBD directly activates the above two chemical receptors, it also acts as an inhibitor or antagonist to impart its benefits. It blocks or deactivates GPR55 receptors that are found predominantly in the cerebellum of the brain. This receptor is responsible for maintaining the bone density because of its effect on osteoclast functioning. They break down as well as responsible for bone reabsorption, and a faulty GPR55 signalling causes osteoporosis. Besides, its activation causes the proliferation of cancer cells and it is also responsible for modulating blood pressure. So, by blocking its activation CBD in one way imparts its anti-cancer effect along with reducing bone reabsorption. Also, using cannabidiol helps to maintain good bone health along with managing blood pressure.
How CBD Imparts It’s Anti Cancer Effect?
Along with CBD’s antagonistic effect on GPR55 receptors, it’s activation of “PPARS or peroxisome proliferator activated receptor” that are located on the surface of the cell’s nucleus gives it anti-cancer effect. The specific activation of PAAR gamma receptors has anti-proliferative effect on tumour cells.
How CBD Is Useful In Treating Alzheimer’s Disease
As mentioned above the CBD’s activation of GPR55 gamma receptors also disintegrates amyloid beta plaque that plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. This gives cannabidiol its neuroprotective effect.
What Are The Other Useful Effects Of CBD?
The PPAR receptors are also responsible for the regulation of genes that are responsible for lipid uptake, energy homeostasis and other metabolic functions. Because of this it will be useful in the treatment of diabetes. This combined with the anti-inflammatory property of cannabidiol helps with type 1 diabetes, as it is caused by the inflammation of pancreas due to attack by immune cells. Besides, it can also be beneficial in managing and treating obesity problems by increasing the metabolism. Research has shown that CBD causes the transformation of adipose or white fat cells into brown fat cells that are responsible for calorie burning. Not only that, this transformation requires energy.
What Is The Effect Of CBD As A Reuptake Inhibitor?
The anti-anxiety and anti-inflammatory property of CBD is due to its function as an adenosine reuptake inhibitor. As a result it increases the levels of this neurotransmitter and the activity of adenosine receptors A1A and A2A. They play an important role in regulating coronary blood flow and cardiovascular function. Also cannabidiol acts as anandamide reuptake inhibitor and increases its levels in synapses by preventing its breakdown. This neurotransmitter is responsible for improving mood as well as also gives CBD neuroprotective property.
These are some of the ways in which CBD medical benefits are imparted in humans. More researches are conducted to identify its other potential benefits.